NetRadar is a program that maps your Internet connection. Here are some images that it has generated over the past few years.
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This image is from one of the most recent versions of NetRadar. It contains measurements to about 40 different points on the Internet. Several interesting areas of Interest on this map are (a) the loop on the left, (b) the red area on the left, and (c) the clustered structure on the top right. All of these patterns are the  
Here is another visualization from the same program. Label X is the computer where this map originates. Point A is a router that is slowing down downstream sites. Point B shows a similar situation. Point C shows a router at a major peering point that despite high usage, is working fine.
This is a map of how Ethernet segments (the fan shaped clusters) interconnect with other segments and access points.
Most communication over the Internet occurs passes through long strands of routers. This graph shows how quickly different paths of the Internet can diverge.
Routing can result in remarkably circuitous routes to get between two different points. As shown down on the bottom, latency increases mainly because of congestion, not distance.
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NetRadar: Your Internet Spyglass.